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10 long, shining tendinous strips, which seem parallel but in reality con- verge posteriorly at very pointed angles, whose apices lie near the limit of the movable part of the spine and somewhat further back. 16-80 15-80 15-55 16-00 17-89 17-38 19-38 18-93 16-20 15-55 16-45 16-23 14-30 13-68 12-60 13-83 15-33 15-30 16-07 12-85 14-65 14-45 14-48 16-03 "/o 6-13 2-85 2-85 2-34 4-08 1-35 4-43 9-31 0-20 21-10 1-37 8-72 a = 7-41»(o. 16-35 15-55 16-45 15-40 15-80 15-00 15-90 15-35 17-90 19-20 % 4-83 6-38 5-06 3-46 -=-7-26 2-27 "(0, , r a I 61-37 'lb ; 60-76 (, ( a 60-52 ' \h ' 60-04 10 '« • Ö2-23 \b 61-19 N of amides mgrs.

The part of this which lies on each side along the elongated, anterior vertebræ, above the attachment of these to the ridges on the lateral plates, are attached in front to the skull, very firmly especially to the supraoccipital, by means of a thick tendinous mass, which further back divides into two long tendinous strips along the upper border of the muscles; the whole of this muscular part probably represents a number of muscular segments corre- sponding to the 5 — 6 vertebræ and we find also, that it is penetrated longitudinally by ca. 61-21 60-25 61-44 62-08 63-92 63-52 64-96 63-81 61-31 62-52 62-93 62-97 64-20 64-33 6111 62-00 62-09 63-07 61-56 62-32 61-21 60-84 62-72 64-17 mgrs. 15-13 16-10 14-95 14-90 15-95 15-20 13-00 12-80 18-80 16-90 H-6-41 0-33 4-7Ü 1-54 10-11 1 grs. ' 60-00 ■J la 1; 62-27 j 3 lb 1 61-72 ; y ( a j 60-71 , i lb ! „ g / a 62-27 i lb , 61-75 10 / a : 61-68 , i lb 1 62-15 mgrs. The portions marked d were crushed directly after being split; the portions marked b were allowed to stand with 0-6 c. ether per liter for 3 days and there- after 2 days without ether. After the ex- posure the cut was dark and dry and wounding-cork was formed.

The most important features of the brancliial a])paratus can be represented in tabular form as follows: Gill-arch Basibr. The muscular fibres which move the rays of the ventral fins by means of these tendons form a muscular mass, which as mentioned above hides the upper ends of the pelvic bones, and the main portion at any rale takes its origin from the inner wall of the abdomen.

Tlie inner row of gill-rakers is, as above mentioned, weakly developed everywhere, and the rakers short and fine (easily overlooked between tlie numerous papillæ on the throat), but usually with a small bony axis, especially on IV, where however owing to the sliortness of llie gill-deft they do not occur on the epi- branchiais*. Long muscular tendons lie, as above menlioned, along the anterior and posterior lateral surface, separated by the faint axial thickening, and also on the inner side of the half facing forward — thus between the two halves of the pelvics (corresponding to the ventral musculature on the pelvics of a typical fish). 19-89 17-56 16-78 17-00 19-37 19-10 14-55 15-78 16-08 15-60 16-70 16-66 "/n 11-71 -f-1-31 1-39 -r-8-45 2-99 0-2-1 m = 2-73 »/o. The potatoes were fresh and wounding-cork was formed after the exposure.

The distal part lying over the throat ends in a rounded cartilaginous border connected with the pharyngeals II and ///. Starks' error has possibly arisen from investigation of a dried specimen, in which the anterior, extremely brittle and almost unossified boundary of the opening has fallen out. The number of rays in the pectoral fin I find to be 11 in A. In a single specimen of scutata, further, there was on the left side 1 more rudimentary ray above and on the right side 1 rudimentary but 68 30 longer ray at the lower edge, in addition to the 10 rays developed.

The epibranchial // is somewhat curved over the throat; at the bend it sends out an upward process (an indication of a similar process is found on epi- branchial /). The true condition I have shown in the figure of A. We see here that the large, oval foramen is i|uite surrounded by the scapular alone, as elsewhere in the bony fishes. 216) has correctly stated, the base of the pectoral lies in sciitata (almost) above the middle of the 6th ventral plate, whilst in the other two species it is (almost) over the boundary between the 5th and 6th^. scu/a/a (though 11 in one of 11 specimens); in addition, there is in all 3 species a small, quite rudimentary ray at the upper border of the base of the pectoral. 7o 1 u 1 44-59 I 14-50 3[« lb 31-75 i 19-57 Mb 43-27 12-80 11-72 30-93 : 13-98 28-56 2 / a 47-55 1 i 9-29 4 ' " 40-12 è 17-96 lb ' 17-28 ' „ 7-54 18-91 » b 39-63 " 17-60 2-(K) 26.'i potatoes Nof amides »b. For all the experiments carried out in the spring only 1 half tuber was used for each portion.

The muscular mass is specially tendinous along the ventral edge of this region and constantly more ten- dinous the more we approach the movable part of the vertebral column ; the tendons are fixed to the transverse processes of the posterior, movable abdominal vertebræ and those of the anterior caudal vertebræ. /: sjileen; 72 34 for a long distance and thereafter the arteria hepatica ; it receives the duct from the gall-hhidder, then that from the right lobe of the liver and — still accompanied by the A. 15-91 14-25 20-00 17-53 15-20 14-68 16-75 16-50 13-83 13-45 Decrease of i V of amides 10-94 12-35 3-42 1-49 2-75 M = 3-74 "lo. : Untersuchungen über die Eigenbewegungen für 140 Sternen des IV. I may add, that the arrangement of the musculature can in Ihe main be studied without preparation, being seen through the skin. The muscles for the pectoral fins are specially strong, corresponding to the considerable size of the pectoral girdle. The caudal vein enters at the posterior end of the kidney. i"-l'laddcr : hil: bile-duct; s: swim-bladder; re : kidney ; go : ovary. Concerning the venous sj'stem I can only say that there are as usual two anterior cardinal veins and two posterior (cp), of which the right is much larger than the left. IV; its distal main part ends in a cartilaginous border, connected with the adjacent pharyngeal /// and also touches the pharyngeal IV; owing to the length of the 9' Fig. Aniphisilc sciilill-ral;ers is also 66 28 process mentioned above this epibranchial seems to be bifurcated. The whole of the inner part of the scapula is cartilaginous and the cartilage on the front, upper corner is quite uncovered by bone; from the boundary between the scapula and coracoid the cartilage extends into the latter as a broad triangle, continuing from the lower angle as a thin axis across the horizontal part and increa- sing evenly in thickness towards the clavicle, where finally the anterior end is quite cartila- ginous. 19 shows likewise that the postclavicle {pctjhas essentially the same form as in A. The part of the clavicle visible externally is longer in scuiata than in the other two species, where it also has a somewhat diflerent form (cf. The uppermost rays are the longest and strongest in all the species; the breadth of the rays decreases evenly towards the lower margin; the lowermost ray and the uppermost 2-4 are quite unarliculated, the remainder distinctly articulated though in extremely varying degree. 20) can be seen in all the species through the sharp ventral margin, always in the 8th ventral plate. The results of Series L., which has no great value on account of (he small number of the experiments, might indicate that the tubers in the last stage of the resling-period are not able to react upon injury; this hypothesis is however contra- dicted by the circumstance that wounding-cork is formed in potatoes that were experimented on in the spring as well as in those that had been examined earlier; even in germinating tubers wounding cork was observed as I have already de- monstrated by a considerable number of experiments. The samples marked a were crushed directly after the tubers being split; the portions marked b were exposed to injury for 3 days. Epibranchial /// has a similar form, but its upward process is much longer and articulates with the corresponding pro- cess on epibr. As in many other lishes the coraco-scapular cartilage has been |)reserved to such an extent that there is but a small ossi- fied portion, in parts exceedingly thin, outside it. strigata it extends backward beyond the pelvis as far as the posterior margin of the 8th ventral plate. scuiata there is an oval opening o, bounded partly by the coracoid, partly by the very considerable, lowermost (4th) basal (bai^). All the rays are unbranched, but linely threaded at the ends (the same applies to the rays of the ventrals and the other fins). Weight ' of Nuiiiljer potatoes t A' of :i in i des Ueereiisr of N of amides No. of potatoes N umbel A' of amides Decrease of A' of amides 1 1 grs.

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